Biofloc Technology (BFT) in Aquaculture

A Revolutionary System of Biosecured Semi-intensive and Intensive shrimp and Fish Farming.

Biofloc technology has become a popular technology in the farming of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and now it is used in P. monodon, Tilapia and other fish farming. It is now a very popular system of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp and fish farming with low or no water exchange. It is comparatively much profitable and bio-secured system of aquaculture. The basic technology was developed by Professor Yoram Avnimelech (2000, 2005a&b) in Israel .This system is commercially using with success in shrimp farming in Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia.

This technology utilizes the co-culture of heterotrophic bacteria and algae grown in flocs under controlled conditions within the culture pond. Thus microbial biomass is grown on unconsumed feed, fish excreta, and inorganic nitrogenous products resulting in a removal of these unwanted components from the water. The major driving force is the intensive growth of heterotrophic bacteria which consume organic carbon . It has been calculated that a carbohydrate need of 20g to immobilize 1 g of N, based on a microbial C/N ratio of 4 and a 50 % C in dry carbohydrate.
Flocs consist of a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms (floc formers and filamentous bacteria), particles, and colloids.
At its core, biofloc is a waste water treatment system and was developed to mitigate the introduction of diseases into aquaculture facilities or farms from incoming water (water exchange, typically used in prawn farming). Biofloc systems employ a counter-intuitive approach to more traditional aquaculture designs. Where more traditional aquaculture designs seek to remove suspended solids, bio-floc systems allow and encourage solids and the associated microbial communities to accumulate in the water. Assuming sufficient aeration and amalgamation in order to maintain an active “floc” in suspension, water quality can be maintained and controlled. Bioflocs’ may also have probiotic effects in some species. Essentially, bioflocs’ provide two very critical services which also helps a little to understand how they work. They treat wastes from feeding and provide nutrition from floc consumption. “Flocs” are a supplementary food resource that can be consumed between feeding times (pellet use). One of the benefits of biofloc systems is it capacity to recycle waste nutrients via microbial protein into fish or prawns. The main component of biofloc is nitrogen that is incorporated into bacterial cells. One other benefit of biofloc systems is the benefit of improved feed conversion ratios derived from the consumption of microbial protein. It should also be noted that bi-floc systems are generally implemented as pond based systems as they add the most benefits to pond based aquaculture. Additionally, biofloc is not suitable for just any species and works best with species that are able to derive nutritional benefit from the direct consumption of “floc”.

Biofloc Management:

The major component of biofloc is heterotrophic bacteria. The function of the biofloc is to reduce the nitrogenous metabolic waste (ammonia, nitrite) produced by shrimp feeding and production.
Ammonia consumed by heterotrophic bacteria becomes protein, which can then be consumed by shrimp and converted into growth. Heterotrophic bacteria need carbon for ammonia to be assimilated. In addition to the commercial feed, a supplemental source of carbon must be added in order to stimulate production of the heterotrophic bacteria and reduce the nitrogenous waste.Shrimp feed has a carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of approximately 7–10:1. Heterotrophic bacteria would prefer a ratio of approximately 12–15:1. Simple sugars or starches are added to increase the ratio and promote bacterial growth. Additives have included molasses, sugar, sucrose, and dextrose. Some producers use glycerin. Application rates will vary with the protein content of the feed and composition of the carbon source, but a good rule of thumb is that for every 1 kg of feed, about 0.5–1 kg of carbon source is required. Higher protein feed will need higher carbon supplementation. Actual applications must take into consideration the levels of ammonia and nitrites in the water.
For successful and efficient management of a biofloc farm have to get more idea about biofloc management. But the technique is not so complicated. Most simple and easily understandable explanation about biofloc is that heterotrophic bacteria will decompose waste materials and ammonia content of water and will be converted to bacterial biomass. Part of this highly nutritious biomass consumed by protozoa and other microorganisns will converted to their biomass. These microorganisms and bacteria remain in small floc and serves as very nutritious food of the cultured organisms. So biofloc system helps to maintain good water quality , decreases requirement of water exchange, decreases quantity of feed requirement(by about 20%) and helps to maintain biosecurity
Biofloc system of farming is now very popular in many countries of the world including Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, India etc.

Biofloc System in shrimp farming
Biofloc System in shrimp farming
Checking biofloc concentration
Checking biofloc concentration
How biofloc system works
How biofloc system works
How biofloc system works
How biofloc system works

19 Comments. Leave new

  • Md. Nurullah
    May 24, 2017 10:07 am

    I want to know about BFT

    Reply
  • Mushfiqul Huq
    June 13, 2017 8:51 am

    Is there any training on Biofloc Technology in Bangladesh. For Tilapia Farming using Biofloc Technology can I solely depend on flocs and natural food (created on earthen pond) rather than providing supplement food? Thanks for your cooperation

    Reply
    • Thank you for the comment. Since there are very few people in Bangladesh who are know to such great technology, unfortunately there is no training available on Biofloc technology yet. This is indeed a great technology for aquaculture. Hope it will bring a change in Bangladesh Aquaculture soon.
      One can not solely depend on Biofloc and Natural feed. Biofloc will meet 25 – 30 % of the demand.

      Reply
  • Thanks of your effective writing. It is very high technology for technically and economically growth. We already developed this type of work with cat fish at Sree – Mangal in Bangladesh.

    Reply
    • Mr Sadar Amin, can i visit your biofloc project please?Any contact number will be helpful.

      Reply
  • What are the thing we can give as carbon source

    Reply
  • Hasan Prodhan
    October 23, 2018 8:11 am

    if there any training in our country please inform me. i am very grateful if i do such technology in my project area. thanks.

    Reply
    • Dear Mr. Prodhan, Thank you for the comment. So far our knowledge, there is no training available on BFT in our country right now. Hope there will be, soon enough. There are many people in Bangladesh who tried it themselves by help of internet, unfortunately due to lack of experience and proper guideline most of them failed and stopped in the middle. So we believe and hope that someone will come forward with a training program on BTF.

      Reply
  • syed najmi zargham
    October 27, 2018 5:05 am

    Aoa
    wher i can get training of bft

    Reply
  • in which which language traning available.

    Reply
  • Hi this is ashok from India, will you provide any training for this thecnology.

    Reply
  • I am from Nepal and I want to learn BTF and start aquaculture here. Do you provide any kind of training for BTF in Indonesia? If yes, please provide me your email address. Thank you.

    Reply
    • Dear Samir,
      Thank you for your interest. We do not provide any training on BFT. We are manufacturer and supplier of all Aquaculture products such as Medicine, Vitamins, Probiotics and Equipment.

      Reply
  • Sir I am interested in biofloc but due to lack on training in our country I am willing to take training from other sources . Can u plz help me to find the right place for training. I heard that there is training centre in Indonesia . If yes plz help me on this
    Thanks

    Reply
  • Chandan Kumar
    May 13, 2019 4:00 pm

    Hi,

    May I know the best Probiotics for BFT & how to use Probiotics for BFT ?

    I am interested to know about Medicine, Vitamins & Equipment for BFT in details if you can provide the such details.

    Thank you in advance.

    Reply
  • Noshad Afzal Malik
    June 20, 2019 7:13 pm

    Dear Sir. I want to learn about biofloc fish farming technology and also want to do the course. I hope that the biofloc technology courses already start in Indonesia . Kindly give me full detail about course, time period and fee.
    Noshad Afzal Malik
    From Pakistan

    Reply
  • Md Iqram Uddin
    August 2, 2019 2:43 am

    Hi! I am iqram and from Chattrogram. I hereby inform you that I want to set up an indoor fish firm commercially through Bioflock system. Recently I am searching to get information about it and decided to get training from Indonesia next month Inshallah. Can I get any support or consultancy from ABESTA to establish my project?

    Reply
  • I am conducting an orientation class in biofloc on 7th August at Karunagappally. Kollam, Kerala.
    Interested parties can contact 9447063484

    Reply

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